Test bank for Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind 4th edition by David Buss

Test bank for Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind 4th edition by David Buss


Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind 4th edition by David Buss Test bank Questions

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Test bank for Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind 4th edition by David Buss

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Test bank for Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind 4th edition by David Buss

Table of contents

1. Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary Psychology
Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Psychology
Evolution before Darwin
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
Darwin’s Theory of Sexual Selection
The Role of Natural and Sexual Selection in Evolutionary Theory
The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance
The Ethology Movement
The Inclusive Fitness Revolution
Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection
Trivers’s Seminal Theories
The Sociobiology Controversy
Common Misunderstandings About Evolutionary Theory
Misunderstanding 1. Human Behavior is Genetically Determined
Misunderstanding 2. If It’s Evolutionary, Then We Can’t Change It
Misunderstanding 3. Current Mechanisms are Optimally Designed
Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans
BOX 1.1 Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins
Landmarks in the Field of Psychology
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Williams James and the Psychology of Instincts
The Rise of Behaviorism
The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability
The Garcia effect, Prepared fears, and Decline of Behaviorism
Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution
Suggested Readings
2. The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology
The Origins of Human Nature
Three Theories of the Origins of Adaptive Mechanisms
The Three Products of Evolution
Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary Psychology
The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms
All Species Have a Nature
Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism
Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms
Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses
Comparing Different Species
Cross-cultural Methods
Physiological and Brain Imaging Methods
Genetic Methods
Comparing Males and Females
Comparing Individuals within a Species
Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts
Experimental Methods
Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses
Archeological Records
Data From Hunter-Gatherer Societies
Life-History Data and Public Records
Human Products
Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources
Identifying the Adaptive Problems
Guidance of Modern Evolutionary Theory
Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures
Guidance from Traditional Societies
Guidance from the Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology
Guidance from Current Mechanisms
Guidance from Task Analysis
Organization of Adaptive Problems
Suggested Readings
3. Survival Problems and Solutions
Food Acquisition and Selection
Social and Cultural Aspects of Food
Food Preferences
Disgust: The Disease Avoidance Hypothesis
Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection Hypothesis
Fire and Cooking
Why Humans Like Spices: the Antimicrobial Hypothesis
Why Humans Like To Drink Alcohol: The Evolutionary Hangover?
The Hunting Hypothesis
The Gathering Hypothesis
Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses
The Scavenging Hypothesis
Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in Specific Spatial Abilities
Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape Preferences
The Savanna Hypothesis
Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers: Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and “Evolutionary Memories”
Most Common Human Fears
Children’s Anti-Predator Adaptations
BOX 3.1 Evolved Navigation Theory and the Descent Illusion
Combating Disease
Are Humans Programmed to Die?
The Theory of Senescence
The Puzzle of Suicide
Suggested Readings
4. Women’s Long-Term Mating Strategies
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate Preferences
Parental Investment and Sexual Selection
Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms
The Content of Women’s Mate Preferences
Preference for Economic Resources
Preference for Good Financial Prospects
Preference for High Social Status
Preference for Older Men
Preference for Ambition and Industriousness
Preference for Dependability and Stability
Preference for Size and Strength
Preference for Good Health and Physical Appearance
Love and Commitment
Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children
Preference for Similarity
Additional Mate Preferences
Context Effects of Women’s Preferences
Effects of Women’s Personal Resources on Mate Preferences
Effects of Temporal Context on Women’s Mate Preferences
The Mere Presence of Attractive Others: Mate Copying
Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Mate Preferences
Effects of Women’s Mate Value on Mate Preferences
How Women’s Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior
Women’s Responses to Men’s Personal Ads
Women’s Marriages to Men High in Occupational Status
Women’s Marriages to Men Who are Older
Effects of Women’s Preferences on Men’s Behavior
BOX 4.1 What About Lesbian Sexual Orientation?
Suggested Readings
5. Men’s Long-Term Mating Strategies
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men’s Mate Preferences
Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and Marriage
The Problem of Assessing Women’s Fertility or Reproductive Value
The Content of Men’s Mate Preferences
Preference for Youth
Evolved Standards of Beauty
Body Fat, Critical Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Body Mass Index
Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Appearance
Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women?
Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty
Context Effects on Men’s Mating Behavior
BOX 5.2 Homosexual Orientation
Men in Positions of Power
Context Effects from Viewing Attractive Models
Testosterone and Men’s Mating Strategies
The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences
Effect of Men’s Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior
Men’s Responses to Women’s Personal Ads
Age Preferences and Marital Decisions
Effect of Men’s Mate Preferences on Women’s Competition Tactics
Effect on Men’s Preferences on Attention, Vocalization, Tips, and Engagement Rings
Suggested Readings
6. Short-Term Sexual Strategies
Theories of Men’s Short-Term Mating
Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating
Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men
BOX 6.1 Functions Versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term Mating
Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term Mating
Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating Psychology
Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating
Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating
Behavioral Evidence for Short-Term Mating
Women’s Short-Term Mating
Evidence for Women’s Short-Term Mating
Hypotheses About Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term Mating
Costs for Women of Short-Term Mating
Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women
Context Effects on Short-Term Mating
Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating
Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating
Suggested Readings
7. Principles of Parenting
Why Do Mothers Provide Parental Care More Than Fathers?
The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis
The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis
An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care
Genetic Relatedness to Offspring
Offspring’s Ability to Convert Parental Care Into Reproductive Success
Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in Children
The Theory of Parent-Offspring Conflict
Mother-Offspring Conflict in Utero
Mother-Child Conflict and Sibling Relatedness
Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating
BOX 7.1 Killing Parents and Asymmetry of Valuing Parents and Children
Suggested Readings
8. Problems of Kinship
Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness
Hamilton’s Rule
Theoretical Implications of Hamilton’s Rule
Empirical Findings That Support the Implications of Inclusive Fitness Theory
Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels
Kin Recognition and Kin Classification in Humans
Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles Women
Life-or-Death Helping among Humans
Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker Than Water?
Kinship and Survival
Vigilance over Kin’s Romantic Relationships
Kinship and Stress
Patterns of Inheritance–Who Leaves Wealth to Whom?
Grandparental Investment
BOX 8.1 Investment by Aunts and Uncles
A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family
The Dark Side of Families
Suggested Readings
9. Cooperative Alliances
The Evolution of Cooperation
The Problem of Altruism
Theory of Reciprocal Altruism
Tit for Tat
BOX 9.1 Strategies for Promoting Cooperation
Examples of Cooperation in Nature
Food sharing in Vampire Bats
Chimpanzee Politics
Cooperation and Altruism among Humans
Social Contract Theory
Do People Remember Cheaters?
Indirect Reciprocity Theory
Costly Signaling Theory
The Detection of Prospective Altruists
The psychology of friendship
Costs and Benefits of Friendship
Cooperative Coalitions
Suggested Readings
10. Aggression and Warfare
Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems
Co-opt the Resources of Others
Defend against Attack
Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals
Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies
Deter Rivals from Future Aggression
Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity
The Context-Specificity of AggressionWhy Are Men More Violently Aggressive Than Women
Box 10.1 The Recalibration Theory of Anger
Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of Aggression
Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Men
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against Women
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Women
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against Men
BOX 10.2 Yanomamo Warfare
Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms?
Suggested Readings
11. Conflict between the Sexes
Strategic Interference Theory
Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex
Conflict over Sexual Access
Sexual Aggression and Evolved Differences Against Sexual Aggression
Sexual Harassment
Sexual Aggressiveness
Do Men Have Evolved Rape Adaptations?
Individual Differences Against Rape Proclivity
Jealous Conflict
Sex Differences in Jealousy
From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate Retention
Sex Differences in the Use of Mate Retention Tactics
Contexts Influencing Intensity of Mate Retention Effort
Violence toward Partners
Conflict over Access to Resources
Causes of Resource Inequality: Women’s Mate Preferences and Men’s Competitive Tactics
BOX 11.1 Are All Men United with Other Men to Control Women?
Suggested Readings
12. Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance
The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies
Dominance and Status in Non-Human Animals
Evolutionary Theories of Dominance and Status
An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving
Dominance Theory
Social Attention-Holding Theory
Determinants of Dominance
BOX 12.1 Facial Dominance
Self-Esteem as a Status Tracking Mechanism
Strategies of Submissiveness
Suggested Readings
13. Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology
Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment Under Uncertainty
The Evolution of Language
Evolutionary Social Psychology
Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories About Social Phenomena
The Evolution of Moral Emotions
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Theory of mind modules
Life History Strategies
Evolutionary Personality Psychology
Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization
Adaptive Self-Assessment of Heritable Qualities
Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies
Evolutionary Clinical Psychology
Causes of Mechanism Failure
Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought to be Dysfunctions
Evolutionary Cultural Psychology
Evoked Culture
Transmitted Culture
The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and MusicToward a Unified Psychology
Suggested Readings


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