Test bank for Connections A World History, Combined 2nd edition by Edward H. Judge

Test bank for Connections A World History, Combined 2nd edition by Edward H. Judge


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Test bank for Connections A World History, Combined 2nd edition by Edward H. Judge

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Test bank for Connections A World History, Combined 2nd edition by Edward H. Judge

Table of contents

Why We Wrote This Book
Support Materials
Part I: Emergence and Expansion of RegionalSocieties, To 300 C.E.
Chapter 1 The Emergence of Human Societies, to 3000 B.C.E.Our Earliest Ancestors
Hominids and Cultural Adaptation
Foraging, Family, and Gender
Ice Age Migrations and Homo Sapiens
Physical and Cultural Diversity
Paleolithic Cultural and Spiritual Perspectives
Intercultural Connections and Conflicts
The Origins and Impact of Agriculture
The Origins of Farming and Herding
Agricultural Innovation and Expansion
Foragers, Hunter-Farmers, and Pastoral Nomads
Agricultural Society: Village, Family, and Land
The Impact of Agriculture
The Emergence of Complex Societies
Towns, Cities, Occupations, and Religion
States and Civilizations
Chapter Review
Chapter 2 Early Societies of West Asia and North Africa, to 500 B.C.E.
Early West Asian Societies
Early Mesopotamia: The City-States of Sumer
The Akkadian Conquest and Spread of Sumerian Culture
Babylonian Society and Hammurabi’s Code
Indo-European Migrations
The Hittite Connection
Later Mesopotamia: Assyrians and Chaldeans
Early Northeast African Societies
Egyptian Culture and Society
The Kingdoms of Egypt
Nubian Culture and the Kingdoms of Kush
The Kingdom and Culture of Meroë
West Asia and North Africa: The Phoenician Connection
The Israelites and Their God
The Children of Israel
The Kingdoms of Israel
The God of Israel
Chapter Review
Chapter 3Societies and Beliefs of Early Indai, to 550 C.E.
The Indian Subcontinent
Harappan India: Early Indus Valley Societies
The Early Cities
Farming, Culture, and Commerce
The Decline of Harappan Society
Vedic India: The Aryan Impact
Aryan Incursions and the Rise of Vedic Culture
The Emergence of Caste
Family, Status, and Stability
The Religions of India
Jainism: Reverence for All Living Things
Buddhism: The Path to Inner Peace
Hinduism: Unity amid Diversity
Post-Vedic India: Connections and Divisions
Conflicts and Contacts with Persians and Greeks
The Rise of the Mauryan Empire
Ashoka’s Reign: Buddhism and Paternalism
India After Ashoka: New Connections and Conflicts
Indian Society and Culture
Caste, Family, and Gender
The Visual Arts
Science and Mathematics
Philosophy and Literature: Upanishads and Epics
Chapter Review
Chapter 4The Origins of the Chinese Empire, to 220 C.E.
China’s Geographic Diversity
Early Chinese Societies
Predynastic China
Xia and Shang Societies
Chinese Writing
State and Society During the Zhou Dynasty
The Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle
Conflict, Chaos, and Commerce
The Central Asian Connection
The Classical Age of Chinese Philosophy
Confucianism: Noble-Minded Conduct and Familial Respect
Daoism: The Way That Cannot Be Spoken
Yin and Yang: The Balance of Forces in Nature
Legalism: Regulation, Coercion, and Control
The Birth of the Empire Under the Qin Dynasty
The First Emperor
The End of the Qin Dynasty
The Growth of the Empire Under the Han Dynasty
The Early Han: Confucian Bureaucracy and Military Expansion
Rebellion, Reform, and Ruin
The Later Han: Revival and Decline
Society, Technology, and the Silk Road
Han Society
Technical and Commercial Creativity
The Silk Road and the Sea Trade
Chapter Review
Chapter 5Early American Societies: Connection and Isolation, 20,000 B.C.E-1500 C.E.
Origins and Arrival of the Amerinds
The Amerinds of North America
Two Hunter-Gatherer Bands
Five Limited-Scale Tribal Societies
Four Full-Scale Tribal Societies
Three Complex Societies
The Amerinds of Mesoamerica
The Olmec of the Preclassic Period (1800 B.C.E.–150 C.E.)
The Maya of the Classic Period (150–900 C.E.)
Teotihuacán: Rise and Fall of a Great City-State
The Toltec: Conflict Between Warriors and Priests
South America: Societies of the Andes
Hunter-Gatherers and the Chavín Society
Nazca and Moche Societies
Tiahuanaco, Huari, and Chimor
Chapter Review
Chapter 6 The Persian Connection: Its Impact and Influences, 2000 B.C.E-637 C.E.
The Persian Empire
Geographic Challenges Confront the First Persians
Cyrus the Great
Persian Governance and Society: Links with Mesopotamia
From Cyrus to Darius
Administration of the Empire
Mesopotamian Influences: Law, Administration, and Commerce
Persian Society and Culture
A Religion of Good and Evil
Social and Political Content
Confrontation with Greece
The Ionian Revolt and the Persian Response
Xerxes and the Invasion of Greece
Persian Resurgence
The Macedonian Conquest and Its Successor States
The End of the Persian Empire
Persia Under Macedonian Rule
The Parthian Empire
The Sasanian Empire
Chapter Review
Chapter 7Greek Civilization and Its Expansion into Asia, 2000-30 B.C.E.
Early Greece
Mycenae and Crete
The Polis
Archaic Greece, 700–500 B.C.E.
Greek Colonization and the Spread of Greek Culture
Rivalry Between Sparta and Athens
Classical Greece, 500–338 B.C.E.
The Persian Wars
Athenian Dominance and the Spartan Response
The Peloponnesian War
The Arts and Philosophy in Classical Greece
Architecture, Sculpture, and Pottery
Greek Drama
Classical Greek Society and Religion
Free Labor and Slavery
The Status of Women
Greek Religion
The Empire of Alexander the Great
Alexander’s Conquests
The Fate and Impact of Alexander’s Empire
Connections and Conflicts in the Hellenistic World
Commercial and Cultural Connections
Politics and Governance
Chapter Review
Chapter 8The Romans Connect the Mediterranean World, 753 B.C.E.-284 C.E.
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.
Rivalry with Etruria
The Republic and Its Foundation in Law
The Punic Wars and Rome’s Mediterranean Domination
Changes in Society and Culture
Dissatisfaction with the Republic
Social Discontent and Decline in Popular Rule
Julius Caesar
The Birth of the Roman Empire
The Rise of Octavian
From Republic to Empire
Greco-Roman Culture
Challenges to Augustus’s Work
Roman Religion and the Rise of Christianity
Rome’s Polytheistic Religion
Jewish Resistance and Eastern Cults
Paul of Tarsus and the Spread of Christianity
From Golden Age to Disarray
Commercial Connections
The Empire in Disarray
Chapter Review
Part II: Trans-Regional Conflicts and ReligiousConnections, 200–1200 C.E.
Chapter 9 Germanic Societies and the Emergence of the Christian West, 100-1100 C.E.
The Germanic Peoples
Germanic Society: Kinship and Combat
Germanic Migrations and Their Threat to Rome
The Decline of the Western Roman Empire
The Divided Empire and Its Eastern Orientation
The Triumph and Transformation of Christianity
Crisis and Chaos in the West
The Fall of Rome and End of the Western Roman Empire
Early Medieval Europe: Germanic and Christian Connections
The Emergence of Germanic Kingdoms
The Early Medieval Church: Expansion and Adaptation
The Franks and Their Effort to Reunite the West
Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars: Invasions and Connections
Europe’s Warrior Nobility: Protection, Land, and Power
Economy and Society: Manors, Lords, and Serfs
The Decline and Revival of the Western Church
From Scandal to Reform
The Great Schism of 1054
The Power of the Popes
Chapter Review
Chapter 10The Byzantine World, 284-1240
The Foundations of Byzantine Governance
Constantine and the Christian Church
The Union of Church and State
Early Byzantium: Challenges and Survival
Justinian and Theodora
Byzantine Society
Crises of the Seventh Century
Eastern Christianity’s Culture and Conflicts
Foreign Conflicts and Byzantium’s Decline
The Arab Conflict
The Turkish Conquests
Pre-Christian Russia
Russia’s Difficult Climate and Terrain
Early Cultures and Conflicts
Kievan Rus Connects to the Byzantine World
The First Period: Early Rulers and Campaigns
The Second Period: Connections to Christendom
The Third Period: Chaos and Conflict
Economy and Society
The End of Early Russian Civilization
Chapter Review
Chapter 11The Origins and Expansion of Islam, 100-750
Pre-Islamic Arabia
Camels and Commerce
The Collapse of Southern Arabia and the Rise of Mecca
The Rise of Islam
The Prophet Muhammad
From Mecca to Medina
Islam Expands, 632–661
An Agreement Between Leader and Followers
The Challenge to a Unified Islam
The Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
Umayyad Expansion
Collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate
Society and Culture in Early Islam
Religious Observance: The Mosque
Legal Uniformity: The Shari`ah
Tolerance of Other Faiths
Chapter Review
Chapter 12Religion and Diversity in the Transformation of Southern Asia, 711-1400
Islam Expands Eastward
Islamic Persia and the Abbasid Caliphate
Persian Influences on Islamic Governance and Culture
The Impact of Shi’ite Opposition
The Rise of Baghdad
Cosmopolitan Islam
Abbasid Governance
Commerce and Culture in the Abbasid Caliphate
Sufis and Fundamentalists
The Decline of the Abbasid Caliphate
Forces of Disintegration
Continuity of Islamic Unity and Expansion
The Gupta Empire in India
Gupta Rule and Achievements
Conflict and Collapse
The Islamic Impact on India
Islamic Invasions from Persia
Conflict and Connection: Muslims and Hindus
India’s Influence on Southeast Asia
Funan: The First Southeast Asian State
The Cambodian Empire
Srivijaya: Coalition and Cultural Blend
Chapter Review
Chapter 13Early African Societies, 1500 B.C.E.-1500 C.E.
Africa Before Islam
The Bantu Migrations: Cohesion in Diversity
Regional Cultural Adaptations
Clans and Kingdoms
African Traditional Religion
Early African Culture
Islamic Africa and Spain: Commercial and Cultural Networks
Islamic North Africa
Cosmopolitan Umayyad Spain
Fatimid Egypt
Trade Across the Sahara
Early Saharan Trade
Islam’s Interaction with West Africa
West African Kingdoms: Ghana and Mali
The Conversion of Ghana
Islamic Mali, 1200–1450
Ethiopia’s Christian Kingdom
The City-States of East Africa
Development of a Bantu-Arab Culture
East and West Africa Compared
The Bantu Connection: Central and Southern Africa
The Bantu Influence
Great Zimbabwe
Chapter Review
Chapter 14The Evolution and Expansion of East Asian Societies, 220-1240 C.E.
China’s Age of Disunity, 220–589
The Three Kingdoms Era
Division, Invasion, Adaptation, and Migration
Central Asian Connections and the Arrival of Buddhism
The Spread of Buddhism in China
China’s Age of Preeminence, 589–1279
China Reunited: the Sui Dynasty, 589–618
China Triumphant: The Tang Dynasty, 618–907
China in Turmoil: Ten Kingdoms and Five Dynasties, 907–960
China Resurgent: The Song Dynasty, 960–1127
China Divided: Jurchens and Southern Song, 1127–1279
Highlights and Hallmarks of Chinese Society
Commercial and Technological Innovations
Spiritual, Intellectual, and Cultural Creativity
Urban and Rural Society
Vietnam and the Chinese Impact
Vietnam Under Chinese Dominion
Vietnamese Autonomy
Korea and the Chinese Impact
Early Chinese Influence in Korea
The Kingdom of Koryo, 935–1392
The Emergence of Japan
Early Borrowing from China
The Heian Era: Divergence from China
The Rise of the Warrior Class
Chapter Review
Part III: Cross-Cultural Conflicts And CommercialConnections, 1000–1650
Chapter 15Nomadic Conquests and Eurasian Connections, 1000-1400
The Nomads of Central Asia
Herding and Horsemanship
Family and Social Structure
Contacts and Conflicts with Settled Societies
The Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Turks
The Seljuk Conquests
The Great Seljuk Empire
The Fragmentation of the Seljuk Realm
The Mongol Invasions
The Conquests of Genghis Khan
Reasons for Mongol Success
The Mongol Khanates: Conquest, Adaptation,and Conversion
East Asia: Khubilai Khan and His Mongol-Chinese Empire
Southwest Asia: Mongol Devastation and Muslim Resilience
Russia: Conquest, Tribute, and the Tatar Yoke
Central Asia: The Struggle to Maintain the Mongol Heritage
The Mongol Impact: Connections and Consequences
Trade and Travel: The Pax Mongolica
Exchanges of Ideas and Technologies
The Plague Pandemic
The End of the Mongol Era
Chapter Review
Chapter 16The Resurgence of the Christian West, 1050-1530
Conflicts and Connections Between Europe and Islam
Christians and Muslims in Iberia
The First Crusade: “It Is God’s Will!”
The Muslim Response and the Later Crusades
Islamic Impacts on Western Commerce and Culture
The High Middle Ages
Agricultural Advances
The Growth of Towns and Trade
The Rise of Royal Authority
The Revitalized Roman Church
Intellectual and Cultural Developments
Exaltation of Women and Marriage
The Decline of the Middle Ages
The Avignon Popes
Famine, Plague, and Social Unrest
The Great Western Schism
Europe in Disarray
The European Renaissance
Roots and Attributes of the Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance
The Northern European Renaissance
Social and Political Effects
Chapter Review
Chapter 17Culture and Conflict in the Great Islamic Empires, 1071-1707
The Conquests of Timur Lenk
Timur’s Strengths and Good Fortunes
Attack on the Ottomans
Timur as Warrior and Administrator
The Cosmopolitan Ottoman Empire
Ottomans and Byzantines
Mehmed the Conqueror
The Ottoman State and Society
Suleiman the Magnificent
A Faltering Empire
Safavid Persia: A Shi’ite State
Shi’ite Islam as a Unifying Force
Regional and Islamic Influence on Family and Gender Roles
The Mughal Empire: A Muslim Minority Rules India
The Delhi Sultanate in India
Babur: Founding the Mughal Empire
Akbar’s Reign of Cultural Accommodation
The Great Mughals
Chapter Review
Chapter 18The Aztec and Inca Empires, 1300-1550
The Great Amerind Empires
The Aztec Empire
Tenochtitlán: City in the Lake
Exploitation and Human Sacrifice
Society and Culture
The Inca Empire
A Unified Empire
Society and Economy
Adaptation to the Andes
Governance and Religion
Aztec and Inca on the Eve of Invasion
The Invasion and Conquest of Mexico
The Arrival of the Spaniards
Encounter Between Aztecs and Spaniards
The End of the Aztec Empire
Reasons for the Spanish Victory
The Invasion and Conquest of Peru
Upheavals Among the Inca
Encounter Between Inca and Spaniards
Cajamarca and the End of the Inca Empire
Reasons for the Spanish Victory
Chapter Review
Chapter 19The Global Exploration and Global empires, 1400-1700
The Iberian Impulse
Portuguese Overseas Exploration
Columbus’s Enterprise of the Indies
The Voyage of Magellan
The Portuguese Seaborne Empire
Empire in the Atlantic Ocean
Empire in the Indian and Pacific Oceans
Portugal’s Commercial Empire in 1600
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in America
The Amerind Foundation
Slave Labor
Government and Administration
The Colonial Church
Society in the Iberian Empires
Amerinds and Europeans in North America
Coalitions and Contacts
The Coming of the Europeans
Disease and Demographic Decline
The Columbian Exchange
Chapter Review
Chapter 20The West in an Age of Religious Conflict and GLobal Expansion, 1500-1650
The Protestant Reformation
Roots of the Reformation
The Lutheran Revolt
The Rising Tide of Rebellion
Henry VIII and the English Reformation
Calvin and the Elect
The Spread of Protestantism
The Catholic Counterreformation
The Council of Trent
The Roman and Spanish Inquisitions
New Religious Orders
Religious and Political Strife in Europe
The Spanish Catholic Crusade
The Wars of Religion in France
The Thirty Years War
The Globalization of Western Christianity and Commerce
Catholicism’s Global Expansion
Merchant Capitalism and Global Trade
Colonies, Commerce, and Religion
Western Society in an Age of Religious and Economic Change
Warfare, Disease, and Witch Hunts
Social Effects of Economic Expansion
Family, Gender, Education, and Diet
Changes in the Role of Religion
Chapter Review
Part IV: The Shift From Regional To GlobalConnections, 1500–1800
Chapter 21The Search for Stability in East Asia, 1300–1800
The Search for Stability in Japan and Korea
Rebellions, Warring States, and Intruders
The Unification of Japan
Korea and the Japanese Invasion
Japan Under Tokugawa Rule
The Tokugawa Shoguns
The Evolution of Japanese Society
Urban Culture and the Roles of Women
The Search for Stability in China
The Ming Ascendancy
Sources of Ming Stagnation
Domestic and Foreign Trade
Intruders from Europe and Japan
Calamity and Rebellion
The Qing Empire
The Manchu Conquest
Kangxi and the Consolidation of Manchu Rule
The Jesuits in China: Cultural Connections and Controversy
The Height of the Qing Regime
Vietnam Under Chinese Sway: Expansion and Foreign Influence
Chinese Culture and Society in the Ming and Qing Eras
Civil Service, Scholarship, and the State
Popular Culture and Commerce
Village Farming and Population Growth
The Functions of the Chinese Family
Chapter Review
Chapter 22Southern Asia and the Global Shift in Wealth and Power, 1500–1800
Confrontation: Europe and Islam in Southern Asia
The Indian Ocean Trade
Shifting Balances of Power and Commerce
Transformation of the Indian Subcontinent
Europeans Arrive in India
The Mughals in Decline
The Crisis of Islamic India
British and French Rivalry in India
Muslims and Europeans in Southeast Asia
Coexistence Between Muslims and Hindus
The European Intrusion
The End of Safavid Persia
Safavid Centralization and Decline
Shi’ite Islam After the Safavids
The Ottoman Response to Europe’s Challenge
The Ottomans Lose the Initiative
Ottoman Reform and Cultural Synthesis
Wahhabism in Arabia
Chapter Review
Chapter 23Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1400–1800
Africa’s Diverse Societies
Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa
African Slavery
The Trans-Sahara Slave Trade
African Slaves in the Islamic World
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Africans and the Portuguese
Sugar and the Slave Trade
The Atlantic Trading System
The Capture and Transport of Slaves
African Slaves in the Americas
Riches, Race, and Racism
The Transformation of Africa
The Reorientation of West Africa
The Depopulation of Central Africa
The Contest for East Africa
South Africa and the Dutch
The Impact on Africa of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Demographic Dislocation
Disruption of Family Life
African Slaves and the Global Shift in Wealth and Power
Chapter Review
Chapter 24Absolutism and Enligtenment in Europe, 1600–1763
The Age of Absolutism
The French Model of Absolute Government
Absolutism in Central Europe
The English Alternative to Absolutism
Europe’s Intellectual Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
Absolutism and Enlightenment
Absolutism and Enlightenment in Prussia and Austria
Unenlightened Monarchy in England and France
Chapter Review
Chapter 25Russia’s Eurasian Empire: Convergence of East and West, 1300–1800
Russia’s Eastern Orientation
The Byzantine and Mongol Heritage
The Rise of Moscow
Ivan the Terrible and His Impact
The Early Romanovs and the Russian Church Schism
Muscovite Culture and Society
Russia’s Expansion Across Asia
Russia’s Western Reorientation
Peter the Great: Westernization and War
Elizabeth I: Culture, Elegance, and Conflict
Catherine the Great: Enlightenment and Expansion
Russia’s Eurasian Society
Chapter Review
Part V: Revolution, Industry, Ideology, And Empire,1750–1914
Chapter 26The North Atlantic Revolutions, 1750–1830
The Background of the Atlantic Revolutions
New Ideas About Government and Society
The Seven Years War
The American Revolution
Tensions Between Britain and Its Colonists
Clashes in the Colonies
The Revolutionary War
Consequences of the American Revolution
The French Revolution
The Estates General and the Onset of Revolution
The Constitutional Monarchy and Its Demise
The National Convention and the Reign of Terror
The Role of the Lower Classes
The Directory and the Rise of Napoleon
The Consulate: Consolidation of the Revolution
The Revolution and the Rights of Women
The Haitian Revolution
The Saint-Domingue Slave Colony
The Revolt of Toussaint Louverture
The Success and Impact of the Revolution
The Napoleonic Empire
The Formation and Expansion of the Empire
The Russian Campaign and the Empire’s Collapse
Restoration and Rebellion
The Congress of Vienna and the Congress System
Renewed Attempts at Revolution
Chapter Review
Chapter 27Industry, Ideology, and their Global Impact, 1700–1914
The Industrial Revolution in Britain
Agricultural Advances and Population Growth
Cotton and Its Connections
The Steam Engine and Its Impact
Industrial Britain: Workshop of the World
Industry’s Early Spread and Social Impact
Industrialization in Europe and North America
Mechanization and Urbanization
Family and Society in the Industrial Age
New Ideas and Ideologies
Liberalism and Socialism
Nationalism and Romanticism
The European Impact of Industry and Ideology
Reform and Revolution in Europe, 1832–1849
Liberalism, Nationalism, and Industrial Growth, 1850–1914
The Global Impact of Industry and Ideology
Industry, Technology, and Global Trade
The Great Global Migrations
Industry, Technology, and Imperialism
Nationalism, Liberalism, and Racism
Responses to Western Domination
Chapter Review
Chapter 28Nation Building in the Americas, 1789–1914
The Trials and Triumphs of The United States
Unification and Consolidation
Expansion and Social Division
North Against South
Industry, Immigration, and Overseas Commitments
The Consolidation and Expansion of Canada
French and British Colonization of Canada
Dominion, Expansion, and Ethnic Anxieties
The Revolutions of Latin America
Preconditions for Revolution
Regional Character of the Spanish American Revolutions
Independence Movements in South America
Failure and Eventual Success in Mexico
From Colony to Empire in Brazil
Mexico from Santa Anna to Díaz
La Reforma
Social Structure and the Porfiriato
Argentina and Chile: Contrasts in The Southern Cone
Argentina from Rivadavia to Rosas
Modernization: Society, Women, and the Economy
Chilean Institutionalization
Social Stratification and Inequality
Brazil’s Experiment with Empire
The Long Reign of Pedro II
Slavery, Society, and Imperial Collapse
Chapter Review
Chapter 29New Connections and Challenges in Easter and Souther Asia, 1800–1912
Instability and Endurance in China
China’s Internal Problems
The Opium Trade and Its Impact
The Taiping Rebellion and China’s Disintegration
The Dynasty’s Survival and Regional “Self-Strengthening”
Subordination and Resistance in India
Commercial Connections and Cultural Conflicts
The Indian Revolt of 1857
The Rise of Indian Nationalism
Restoration and Adaptation in Japan
The Tokugawa Shogunate and the Western Challenge
Civil War and Meiji Restoration
Centralization and Western Adaptations
The Impact of Imperialism in Asia
Southeast Asia and the West
Indonesia and the Dutch
Japan Versus China in Korea
The Scramble for Chinese Concessions
The Chinese and Japanese Response
The Boxer Uprising in China
The Russo-Japanese War
The End of the Chinese Empire
Chapter Review
Chapter 30New Connections and Challenges in West Asia and Africa, 1800–1914
Changing Patterns in West Asia and North Africa
Reform and Rebellion in the Ottoman Empire
The Tanzimat and the Young Turks
The Transformation of Egypt
The Suez Canal and Its Impact
The Origins of Arab Nationalism in West Asia
The Plight of the Maghrib
Changing Patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Banning of the Slave Trade
New Economic Patterns
The Rise of New Regional States
The Age of Imperialism in Africa
Factors that Facilitated Imperialism
The Colonization of the Congo Basin
Global Trade and the Occupation of Egypt
The Imperial Scramble
The Roots of African Resistance
Diamonds, Gold, and Diversity in South Africa
The Impact of Empire on Africa
Economic and Social Implications
The Impact of Western Ideals and Institutions
African Resistance to Colonial Rule
Chapter Review
Part VI: Global Upheavals and Global Integration,1900–Present
Chapter 31The Great War and the Russian Revolutions, 1890–1918
The Path to War and Revolution
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1890–1907
The Crises of 1908–1913
The Crisis of July 1914
Deadlock and Devastation, 1914–1916
Stalemate on the Western Front
Efforts to Break the Stalemate
The War Against Germany’s Colonies
Civilian Life During the Great War
Year of Revolution, 1917
The United States Enters the War
Mutinies in the French Army
The Russian Revolutions
Year of Decision, 1918
Russian Withdrawal from the War
The Great March Offensive and Influenza Pandemic
Decision in Southwest Asia
The Path to the Armistice
Chapter Review
Chapter 32Anxieties and Ideologies of the Interwar Years, 1918–1939
Western Society and Culture in an Age of Anxiety
The Rise of Relativism and Relativity
Technology and Popular Culture
Changes in the Role of Women
Architecture, Art, and Literatrure
Democracy, Depression, and Dictatorship
The Versailles Settlement
Democracy and Dictatorship in Eastern Europe
Fascism in Italy
The Great Depression and Its Global Impact
The New Deal in the United States
Democracy and Socialism in Western Europe
Communism in Russia
National Socialism in Germany
New Varieties of Nationalism in Africa and Asia
Nationalism and Anticolonialism in Africa
Secular and Islamic Nationalism in the Middle East
Nationalism and Nonviolence in India
Nationalism and Communism in China
Nationalism and Militarism in Japan
Chapter Review
Chapter 33World War II and the Holocaust, 1933–1945
The Road to War
Germany Prepares, 1933–1936
Civil War in Spain, 1936–1939
Germany’s Eastward Expansion
Hitler’s War, 1939–1941
From Poland to France
The Battle of Britain
The German Invasion of Russia
East Asia and the Pacific, 1937–1942
The New Order in East Asia
Japan Strikes in the Pacific
End of the Japanese Advance
North Africa and Europe, 1942–1943
The Battle for North Africa
Stalingrad and Kursk
Civilian Life in World War II
Resistance to Nazi Rule
Nazi Mass Murder
Extermination Camps
The Implementation of Mass Murder
The Question of Responsibility
The Defeat of Germany, 1944–1945
Squeezing Germany Between West and East
Allied Victory in Europe
The Defeat of Japan
The American Strategy
The Japanese Empire Contracts
Atomic Weapons
The Legacy of World War II
Chapter Review
Chapter 34East Versus West: Cold War and its Global Impact, 1945-Present
Origins of the Cold War
The Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
Divided Europe: The “Iron Curtain”
The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
The Berlin Blockade and NATO
The Global Confrontation
New Realities and New Leaders
Decolonization and Global Cold War
Peaceful Coexistence and Its Problems
Berlin, Cuba, Vietnam, and MAD
The West in the Cold War Era
The Revival of Western Europe
Affluence and Anxieties in America
The Soviet Bloc
Life Under Communist Rule
Challenges to Soviet Authority
The End of the Cold War Era
Détente and Its Demise
The Gorbachev Revolution
Collapse of the Communist Bloc
Disintegration of the USSR
The World Transformed
Chapter Review
Chapter 35The Upheavals of Asia, 1945-Present
Independence and Conflict in India and Pakistan
Independence and Partition
India: Democracy, Progress, and Problems
Pakistan: Dictatorship and Division
Revival and Resurgence of Japan
Japan’s Economic Miracle
Problems Amid Prosperity
Conflict and Division in China and Korea
Civil War in China: Communists Versus Nationalists
Divided China: Taiwan and the People’s Republic
Occupation, Partition, and Conflict in Korea
Divided Korea: Communist North, Capitalist South
Radicalism and Pragmatism in Communist China
Early Radical Reforms
The Great Leap Forward and Its Failure
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
China’s Opening to the West
China After Mao: Economic Freedom, Political Repression
The Agonies of Southeast Asia and Indonesia
Vietminh, France, and the First Indochina War
Vietnam, America, and the Second Indochina War
The Cambodian Catastrophe
Indonesia Between East and West
Changes in Asian Societies
Industry, Technology, Population, and Urbanization
Changing Family and Gender Roles
Chapter Review
Chapter 36 Reform and Revolution in Latin America, 1914-Present
Latin America and the World Since 1914
Connections: Latin America in the Global Economy
Conflict: Latin America and Global War
Connections and Conflict: Latin America and the United States
Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America
Argentina: The Failure of Political Leadership
Brazil: Development and Inequality
Chile: Socialism, Militarism, and Democracy
Mexico: The Legacy of the Revolution
Six Regional Transitions
Gender Roles
Chapter Review
Chapter 37Post-Colonial Challenges in Africa and the Middle East, 1939-Present
The Context of African Decolonization
The Impact of World War II
European Preparations for Colonial Autonomy
The Transformation of Africa After 1945
African Nationalism and the Cold War
North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
From Apartheid to Freedom in South Africa
Challenges Facing Independent Africa
Politics: Democracy or Dictatorship?
Economic Underdevelopment
Social Challenges: Poverty, Ignorance, Disease
The Transformation of The Middle East
The State of Israel and the Palestinian Conflict
Arab Nationalism and the Arab-Israeli Wars
The Development of Islamist Fundamentalism
Persian Gulf Wars and Global Terrorism
Chapter Review
Photo Credits


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